Measurement Of Tumor Growth After Co
Cell Viability Assay, Cell Lysate Analysis, and Tumor Growth Delay
Cell viability was measured at an emission wavelength of 590 nm using a microplate reader. We examined whether ATV and/or TZB affects NCI-N87 cell proliferation following treatment by counting cells. Various concentrations of ATV and of TZB were used. Next, cytotoxicity resulting from the poly polymerase 1 and Bcl-2, which are a unique characteristic of apoptotic cell death, was proven by immunoblotting cell lysates using Anti-Bcl-2 antibody and Anti-PARP1 antibody .
When the tumor volume in NCI-N87-bearing mice was 200 Â± 20 mm2, the mice were randomly divided into five groups . Each group was treated with TZB or TZB plus ATV . The tumor size was measured using a digital caliper, and the tumor volume was calculated three times a week, according to the following formula: width2Ã length Ã 0.4.
Perjeta Is Given Every 3 Weeks As An Iv Infusion
PERJETA is given as an intravenous infusion, which means that medication is administered directly and slowly into the bloodstream through a vein.
When you begin treatment, your doctor will start PERJETA, Herceptin® , and docetaxel at the same time, and may adjust the medicines in your treatment plan over time.
If your doctor stops your docetaxel, you may still take PERJETA and Herceptin. If your doctor delays or stops Herceptin treatment, then PERJETA should also be delayed or stopped.
What This Means For You
If youve been diagnosed with early-stage or inflammatory HER2-positive breast cancer and Herceptin and Perjeta will be part of your treatment plan, you may want to talk to your doctor about Phesgo and ask if getting the medicines as an injection makes sense for your unique situation.
If youve been diagnosed with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer and are deciding on first treatments for metastatic disease, you also may want to talk to your doctor about Phesgo and discuss whether an injectable form of Herceptin and Perjeta makes sense for your unique situation.
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Pneumonitis And Gastrointestinal Complications
Researchers have received rare reports of lung disease that occurred during, within a few hours of or several weeks after treatment, Ho and Mackey reported. Patients may experience difficulty breathing, fever, dry cough and tiredness.
People with pre-existing lung disease are at higher risk, and the risk goes up with higher dosages of docetaxel. Most cases resolve after patients stop taking the drug.
Some women may also suffer gastrointestinal complications from colitis after receiving docetaxel. This can cause gastrointestinal perforation and dehydration.
Signs of serious complications include severe diarrhea and abdominal pain. Some patients may need surgery for perforations.
Herceptin Use With Other Drugs
Herceptin is often used with other medications, including chemotherapy or other targeted therapies, to treat breast cancer or gastric cancer.
Herceptin may be used at the same time as the following drugs, or after youve completed treatment with them:
Herceptin can interact with several other medications. Different interactions can cause different effects. For instance, some interactions can interfere with how well a drug works. Other interactions can increase side effects or make them more severe.
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Are There Lab Tests To Check For Side Effects Caused By Herceptin
These side effects can include:
Learn more about some of the side effects that Herceptin may cause.
boxed warnings . A boxed warning is a serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration .
Heart problems. Herceptin use can cause heart problems, including heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmia . Receiving Herceptin with medications called anthracyclines can increase this risk. Examples of anthracyclines include doxorubicin and daunorubicin .
Lung problems. Herceptin can cause serious lung problems, but this is rare. The problems may include shortness of breath, fluid buildup in your lungs, and lung inflammation called interstitial pneumonitis. These lung problems are sometimes related to how Herceptin is given.
Symptoms of the serious lung problems can include shortness of breath, cough, and chest pain or tightness.
Infusion reaction. Herceptin is given as an IV infusion, which is an injection thats slowly dripped into your vein over time. Its possible to have a reaction to the infusion. The reactions can include symptoms such as low blood pressure and angioedema .
In rare cases, anaphylaxis can occur. This is a life-threatening allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:
What you can do
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Most Serious Side Effects Of Phesgo
- PHESGO may cause heart problems, including those without symptoms and those with symptoms
- Receiving PHESGO during pregnancy can result in the death of an unborn baby and birth defects
- PHESGO may cause serious lung problems
- Other possible serious and sometimes fatal side effects of PHESGO therapy include:
- Worsening of low white blood cell counts caused by chemotherapy
- Severe allergic reactions and administration-related reactions
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Herceptin And Other Medications
Below is a list of medications that can interact with Herceptin. This list does not contain all drugs that may interact with Herceptin.
Before taking Herceptin, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Tell them about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.
If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Herceptin and anthracyclines
Anthracyclines are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. Examples include doxorubicin , epirubicin , and daunorubicin .Taking anthracyclines within 7 months of your last Herceptin dose can raise your risk for heart problems.
If your doctor decides anthracyclines are the best option for you, they will monitor your heart during your treatment.
Targeted Drug Therapy For Breast Cancer
As researchers learn more about changes in cells that cause cancer, theyve been able to develop new types of drugs that specifically target these changes. Targeted drugs work differently from chemotherapy drugs and often have different side effects.
Like chemotherapy, these drugs enter the bloodstream and reach almost all areas of the body, which makes them useful against cancers that have spread to distant parts of the body. Targeted drugs sometimes work even when chemo drugs do not. Some targeted drugs can help other types of treatment work better.
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What Are Other Possible Serious Side Effects
- PERJETA should not be used in patients who are allergic to pertuzumab or to any of the ingredients in PERJETA
- Infusion-related reactions: PERJETA is a medicine that is delivered into a vein through a needle. PERJETA has been associated with infusion-related reactions, some fatal. The most common infusion-related reactions when receiving PERJETA, Herceptin, and docetaxel were feeling tired, abnormal or altered taste, allergic reactions, muscle pain, and vomiting. The most common infusion-related reactions when receiving PERJETA alone were fever, chills, feeling tired, headache, weakness, allergic reactions, and vomiting
- Severe allergic reactions: Some people receiving PERJETA may have severe allergic reactions, called hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis, which may happen quickly and may affect many areas of the body. Severe allergic reactions, some fatal, have been observed in patients treated with PERJETA
How To Take Pertuzumab
Pertuzumab is given intravenously . The number of doses and how often you receive the infusion will be determined by your health care provider. This medication may be used in combination with other chemotherapy medications. Because pertuzumab is indicated only for the treatment of HER2 positive cancer, a sample of your tumor will be tested in a lab to determine if it is HER2 positive prior to starting treatment.
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What If I Miss A Dose
To help make sure you dont miss a dose, try setting a reminder on your phone for your infusion appointments.
If you miss a dose of Herceptin by 1 week or less, your usual dose should be given to you as soon as possible rather than waiting until the next planned dose. Youll get your next dose either 1 week or 3 weeks from the date you get this dose, depending on your dosage schedule.
If you miss a dose of Herceptin by more than 1 week, another loading dose of Herceptin should be given as a 90-minute infusion as soon as possible. Youll get your next dose either 1 week or 3 weeks from the date you get this loading dose, depending on your dosage schedule.
Will I Need To Use This Drug Long Term
Herceptin may be used as a long-term treatment. When used as adjuvant treatment of breast cancer , Herceptin is typically used for 1 year. When used to treat metastatic breast or gastric cancer, Herceptin is typically taken until your cancer worsens . Your doctor will determine how long you should take Herceptin.
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What To Expect When Taking Perjeta
Perjeta is prescribed with Herceptin, another targeted therapy medicine, and chemotherapy. All these medicines are given intravenously, which means theyre delivered directly into your bloodstream through an IV or a port.
The first dose of Perjeta is the largest and takes about an hour to complete. After that, it takes 30 to 60 minutes to get Perjeta, which is usually given every 3 weeks in a doctors office. Most people get Perjeta every 3 weeks for 18 to 25 months.
Women who are pregnant or are planning to get pregnant should not be given Perjeta. Perjeta can cause embryo death and birth defects. Its important that you dont get pregnant while youre getting Perjeta you must use effective birth control.
For Advanced Breast Cancer
As the first treatment for breast cancer that has spread, you might have it together with the chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel or docetaxel or with hormone therapies called aromatase inhibitors.
Trastuzumab is also used as a treatment on its own for people who have had at least 2 types of chemotherapy and where hormone therapy has not worked.
You have it every 3 weeks for as long as it is working and the side effects arent too bad.
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Emotional Side Effects Of Temporary Hair Loss
Patients can take steps to alleviate emotional side effects from chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Cutting long hair prior to starting chemo can make hair loss seem less dramatic. A wig, scarf or other head covering can also ease the difficult transition and protect the patients scalp. Its important to remember that new hair regrowth will likely look quite different after chemotherapy ends. Thats because hair color and texture can change dramatically following cancer treatment with chemo drugs. For many patients, believing in eventual hair regrowth after treatment is an important part of the healing cycle. It signals the end of a traumatic time and instills hope at the opportunity to start life over again. A long-term adverse reaction like permanent alopecia, however, can have significant emotional side effects.
How Long Will I Have Pertuzumab For
Before surgery, pertuzumab is given for three to six cycles alongside trastuzumab and chemotherapy.
After surgery, its given alongside trastuzumab and chemotherapy for around one year.
Some people have pertuzumab before and after surgery. Up to 18 cycles can be given in total.
For secondary or locally advanced breast cancer that cant be removed by surgery, you will continue to have it alongside trastuzumab after the chemotherapy has finished, for as long as your treatment team feels youre benefiting from the treatment and tolerating any side effects.
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How Pertuzumab Trastuzumab And Docetaxel Are Given
You will be given this treatment in the chemotherapy day unit. A chemotherapy nurse will give it to you.
During treatment you usually see a cancer doctor, a chemotherapy nurse or a specialist nurse, and a specialist pharmacist. This is who we mean when we mention doctor, nurse or pharmacist in this information.
Before or on the day of treatment, a nurse or person trained to take blood will take a blood sample from you. This is to check that your blood cells are at a safe level to have treatment.
You will see a doctor or nurse before you have the treatment. They will ask you how you have been feeling. If your blood results are okay, the pharmacist will prepare your treatment. Your nurse will tell you when it is likely to be ready.
You will usually be given tablets to take the day before your treatment and for two days after. These help to prevent an allergic reaction to docetaxel and to reduce some other side effects. It is very important to take these tablets. If you have not taken them, let your doctor or nurse know before you start treatment. Some people may have the steroid dexamethasone as a drip on the day of treatment instead of tablets.
Your nurse usually gives you anti-sickness drugs before the treatment. They can be given through:
- a short thin tube the nurse puts into a vein in your arm or hand
- a fine tube that goes under the skin of your chest and into a vein close by
- a fine tube that is put into a vein in your arm and goes up into a vein in your chest .
Perjeta In Early Stage Breast Cancer
Approval of Perjeta for early stage breast cancer was based on data from the APHINITY multi-center, clinical trial performed in 4804 patients with HER2-positive early stage breast cancer who had their primary tumor removed by surgery. Patients were then treated with either Perjeta or placebo, in combination with adjuvant Herceptin and chemotherapy.
In the current trial patients were followed for evidence of invasive disease-free survival defined as the time to first occurrence of cancer recurrence, development of a contralateral invasive breast cancer, or death from any cause.
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Symptoms Of Alcohol Intoxication
In June 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned that docetaxel contains alcohol, which can cause patients to feel drunk after treatment. The agency revised the drugs label to include warnings about the risk.
Docetaxel manufacturers use alcohol, also known as ethanol, to dissolve the active ingredients so the drug can be given intravenously. Different brand-name products contain varying amounts of alcohol.
Patients should not drive or operate machinery for one to two hours after their infusions. Pain relievers, sleep aids and other medications may interact with the alcohol in the infusion and make the intoxicating effects worse.
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you are currently taking and if you have problems with alcohol or other conditions that may be affected by ethanol in docetaxel.
The FDA advises doctors and nurses to monitor patients for signs of being drunk during and after treatment. Let your doctor know if you experience symptoms of being drunk, confusion, stumbling or becoming very sleepy during or after an infusion. Lowering the infusion rate may help resolve the symptoms.
- Emily MillerOctober 20, 2017
Independent studies in clinical practice found higher numbers. For example, study results presented by Nicola Thorp and colleagues at the National Cancer Research Institute Cancer Conference in 2014 found 10 percent to 15 percent of patients suffered long term significant hair loss.